Referencing the text, name 2 positive outcomes and 2 negative outcomes that come from visual electronic media use in childhood. Also referencing the text/research, if you were working with a parent who needed guidance on screen use for children, what information might you share?
Negative outcomes from visual electronic media use in childhood are attention difficulties. Infants and toddlers who were exposed to television were more likely to have attention issues later in childhood. Television can also be disruptive for children during play. If the television is in the background it can disrupt their learning.
Positive outcome from visual electronic media use in childhood are it can help prepare children for school and expand their vocabulary. It is important to note this is in children about four years in age viewing educational television content.
It would be incredibly important to stress to parents how violent television can have an affect on children. Children who view violent content, regardless of age, were shown to have attention difficulties.
Examining the 4 parenting styles as highlighted in the chapter, name one character from today’s pop culture/society that depicts a specific parenting style and describe/cite 4 identifying characteristics as referenced in the text to support your selection.
Peggy Hill and Hank Hill demonstrate an authoritative style when parenting Bobby Hill. They listen to Bobby’s concerns, for instance when Bobby was being bullied at school, Hank suggested he go to the YMCA and sign up for a defense class. Bobby mistakenly signed up for the Women’s self defense class and learned to kick men in their testicles for self-defense. Bobby did this to a bully at school and got in trouble. Bobby had to go speak with the school principal. Hank responded to the school’s concern by attending a meeting with the principal and not ignoring the issue. Hank approached Bobby in a calm manner later that evening and informed Bobby he was going to teach him how to fight fairly and explained it is never appropriately to kick below the belt. Hank tried to encourage Bobby by sparing in the garage however Bobby got frustrated and kicked his father in the testicles. Hank tried to effectively communicate during the situation by addressing the issue with Bobby maturely even though Bobby did not respond maturely. Bobby got in trouble for this and was instructed not to play video games. Later in the episode Bobby was playing a video game when he realized Hank was still incapacitated from being kicked. Peggy took the game from Bobby and when he got upset he tried to kick Peggy where her testicles would be if she was a man. Bobby realized it was a losing battle and followed his parents instructions. Peggy and Hank worked cooperatively to try to correct Bobby’s behavior in a positive way by teaching him how to fight properly and that it is not okay to disregard Hank’s instructions. Peggy supported Hank by helping him follow through with Bobby’s punishment, thus setting clear expectations for Bobby.
Infants exhibiting difficult behavior traits such as fearfulness (reactivity) or irritability (negative emotionality) could negatively influence caregiving behaviors. Infants exhibiting these traits tend to cry more and are fussier. A caregiver works to build attachment through synchrony and other interactions. Examples of synchrony are mother’s gazing or smiling back, mimicking child’s interactions and vice versa. This bonding would be strained by stressed emotions. It would also require more effort from the caregiver in soothing the child to encourage strong attachment. Easy babies who exhibit positive affect trait through smiling and laughing could inspire more quality interaction from a caregiver building stronger attachment.
The trend of decreasing play activity from school schedules in exchange for more academics can be attributed to the progression of learning and development. Executive functions which are skills such as self regulation and working memory are developed through play and experiences during early childhood learning. These skills are later reflected in a child’s ability to follow rules in class, pay attention and work cooperatively with others. Children who have not had the opportunity of early play experiences with other children or interactions in a classroom setting could have detrimental effects on their academic performance as they will lack the skills to effectively participate in a more academic setting. Emphasis on repeated exposure to objects and experiences helps to build understanding which supports the idea of less play and more academics. However Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory suggests successful learning happens through interaction in one’s cultural environment through seeing differences in people and experiences. Interaction with one’s peers can improve language development and cognitive skills
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